Imagine that you are a working public health professional within a state health department. Your supervisor wants you to research the pathophysiology of diseases caused by food or water. In this work Assignment, you may choose a topic dealing with either a food or waterborne disease. Your supervisor requires that your report must focus on the pathophysiological, biological nature of the disease. Furthermore, your supervisor asks that you discuss and evaluate the basis of public health laws, policies, or regulations related to this disease. You must assess how our current understanding of the disease serves as a basis for public health laws, policies, or regulations related to this disease.
Your supervisor asks that you present your findings in a professional report, with the following sections: abstract, introduction, literature review, conclusions, and recommendations. A superior report contains scholarly depth, current APA format, proofreading for spelling and grammatical errors, logical flow of ideas and a logical conclusion, overall scholarly style and tone, and academic references throughout.
Your report should include at least two (2) primary sources (current, peer-reviewed journal articles found through the Library) and at least six (6) total scholarly sources.
The body of the paper should be 4–5 pages, double spaced, not counting the title page, table of contents, abstract, and reference list. Papers must be posted to the Dropbox by the end of Unit 9. The viewpoint and purpose of this Assignment should be clearly established and sustained. Assignment should follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.). Your writing should be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful. Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics.
All papers must include the following sections, at minimum: Introduction (subsections to include statement of the problem, significance of the problem, and background), Literature Review (with topic-appropriate subsections), and Conclusions and Recommendations.
1) Title page
2) Abstract: Abstracts must be concise and specific. The basic idea of an abstract is to provide what was done in the paper, including the key four or five findings, and the conclusion. Background information is not included in an abstract, nor are generalities. Abstract should be completed after you have written the rest of the paper, albeit its placement at the beginning of the paper.
3) Table of Contents
4) Introduction: This must include the statement of the problem and the significance of the problem (validate with text citations and statistics). This section also includes any background and general information that is useful to understand the literature review that follows. For some topics, this may include historical context. Remember to introduce the public health law, policy, or regulation too.
5) Literature Review: This is the heart of the paper. This section includes the analysis of the current (within 9 years) or gold standard primary literature and should consist of presentation of hypotheses, study methods, results, and conclusions in the student’s own words. Compare and contrast studies. Analyze them for flaws and value. Consider studies with conflicting results and similar results and postulate reasons for this as well as conclusions to be drawn. Organization of the literature review section may vary according to the topic, but this section should demonstrate a cohesive connection between all of the primary articles being discussed. Page numbers are required. The use of transitional statements is strongly encouraged.
6) Conclusions and Recommendations: This section is designed to pull together all of the information, including reiterating the significance of the problem and presenting the overarching conclusions of the current research that was analyzed in the literature review. The paper must include a discussion of the law, policy, or regulation level of consistency with what we know about the underlying biology and microbiology of the disease and recommendations for further policies, legislation, interventions, and/or research.
7) Reference List: All references that were cited in the text must appear here in APA format, single spaced with hanging indent. Full credit will not be given should the reference list lack the minimum number of two primary research articles. Keep in mind that most final papers will need many more than four to make the paper complete.
Running head: TYPHOID FEVER
Waterborne Disease: Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is a waterborne disease that continues to pose a major public health concern in different parts of the world, particularly in the underdeveloped nations of Southeast Asia, South Central Asia, and Sub Saharan African. While the prevalence rate of the disease is low in developed countries such as the United States, all countries must take proactive measures to eradicate the causative agent implicated in the development of typhoid fever and ensure improved quality of life. All countries can achieve this through coming up with responsive public health laws and policies.
Table of Contents
Abstract 2 Introduction 4 Literature Review Stick to the secrion you were given in the instructions dont add or substract 4 Incidence 4 Pathophysiology, Pathogenesis, and Biological Mechanisms 5 Patterns and Mode of Transmission 6 Conclusion and Recommendations 7 References 9
A number of scholarly sources have dissected the incidence of typhoid fever in different parts of the globe. For example, a comprehensive review by Yasin, Jabeen, Nisa, Tasleem, and Khan (2018) established that approximately 27 million new cases of typhoid happen every year globally, with mortality in the range of 200,000. The researchers add that the most notable mortality rates and bleakness are in Southeast and South Central Asia. Gotuzzo (2018) shares similar sentiments, stating that the estimated number of typhoid fever cases is 15-20 million yearly, mainly in South East Asia, China, India, and Africa. According to the researcher, (cite which resercher by name and citation) the incidences in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea may reach 1200/100,000 population while in North America, Europe, and other developed countries have low incidences of <10/100,000 population.
Unlike Yasin et al. (2018) and Gotuzzo (2018), Buckle, Walker, and Black (2012) conducted a systematic review to approximate the global morbidity and mortality from typhoid fever for 2010. In this review, which relied upon studies published in Scopus and PubMed databases, the researchers found out that the estimated total number of typhoid episodes in 2010 was 13.5 million while the “adjusted estimate accounting for the low sensitivity of blood cultures for isolation of the bacteria was 26.9 million” (Buckle et al., 2012, p. 6).(follow up all quotes with some kind of conlusion or analysis explanation not just the citation.
Pathophysiology, Pathogenesis, and Biological Mechanisms (use headings and subheading in APA syle)
Empirical and theoretical studies have also highlighted the pathophisiological, pathogenesis, and biological mechanisms implicated in the development of typhoid fever. Researches by Crump (2019) and Keddy (2018) both affirm that the pathogen implicated in the development of the disease is Salmonella enteric serovar typhi (S. Typhi). This pathogen is nonsporulating, flagellated, non-capsulated, Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli. In his review, Crump (2019) provides a comprehensive overview of the chain of infection of S. Typhi in humans. The researcher contends that humans are the reservoirs of S. Typhi, with the pathogen having limited capability of multiplying outside the human host.
A systematic review by Paul and Bandyopadhyay (2017) revealed that the pathogenesis of S. Typhi and pathopsyciology of typhoid fever is a complex process that proceeds through various stages. As the researchers point out, the process begins with an incubation period of 7-14 days, which in many cases is asymptomatic. During this phase, bacteria (S. Typhi) invade macrophages and subsequently spread all through the spleen, liver, and reticuloendothelial system (Paul & Bandyopadhyay, 2017). The organism then multiplies in these organs for a period ranging from one to three weeks. Rupture of the infected cells then takes place, thereby liberating S. Typhi into the bile and causing infection of the small intestine’s lymphoid tissue particularly in the ileum. Mucosal invasion causes the cells in the epithelial to synthesize and release various proinflammatory cytokines.
Contrary to the assertions by Paul and Bandyopadhyay (2017), Yasin et al. (2018) refer to the pathology of typhoid fever in Payer’s patches that assume four phases corresponding approximately to the weeks of disease progression is the individual with typhoid fever has not received treatment. Phase 1 as identified by the researchers is hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles while Phase 2 is necrosis of lymphoid follicles, which occurs during the second week and involves the mucosa as well as the submucosa. Yasin et al. (2018) equate Phase 3 with the ulceration in the bowel’s long axis with the possibility of hemorrhage and perforation while in Phase 4 healing takes place and does not produce strictures from the fourth week onwards.
Patterns and Mode of Transmission (this was not one of the section according to the instructions) Do not add what was not asked this is confusing to the reader)
Existing literature has also delved into the patterns and modes of transmission for S. Typhi. The study by Crump (2019) established that the mode of transmission of S. Typhi is predominantly indirect and largely vehicle-borne via contaminated water, which serves as the vehicle for S. Typhi. Keddy (2018) from a different dimension asserts that transmission can occur in two broad categories, short-cycle transmission and long-cycle transmission. In the short-cycle transmission, fecal shedding contaminates water in the immediate environment, with transmission mediated through inadequate sanitary measures and inadequate hygiene (Keddy, 2018). On the contrary, in long-cycle transmission, contamination occurs in the broader environment, for example pollution by human feces of untreated water supplies. Paul and Bandyopadhyay (2017) in a comprehensive review of typhoid fever found out that the portal of entry for S. Typhi is the mouth, usually by ingestion of focally contaminated food or water. The disease intensity increases with the amount of the ingested dose.
(Furthermore, your supervisor asks that you discuss and evaluate the basis of public health laws, policies, or regulations related to this disease. You must assess how our current understanding of the disease serves as a basis for public health laws, policies, or
regulations related to this disease.
Your supervisor asks that you present your findings in a professional report, with the following sections: abstract, introduction, literature review, conclusions, and recommendations)
The incidence and prevalence of typhoid fever continues to pose a major public health concern in different parts of the globe. This is particularly true in the developing countries such as those located in Southeast and South Central Asia, Africa, and parts of Oceania. From the literature review, it has become apparent that in these developing countries, typhoid is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The pathogen implicated in the development of the disease, S. Typhi, infects individuals through feces found in contaminated water or food. Apart from poor water hygiene, other notable drivers of the typhoid fever disease include weak government regulations to improve sanitation in order to fight the incidence of the disease. The following recommendations may be beneficial in fighting typhoid fever not only in the developing countries but also in the developed countries:
Increasing rates of vaccination in high-risk areas where people have a higher susceptibility to contracting typhoid fever – As cited by Bentsi-Enchill and Hombach (2019), the WHO contends that vaccination provides an effective shorter-term control strategy, is more affordable to governments, and does not require substantial behavioral change. The WHO has updated its policy on the oral live attenuated Ty21a and parenteral unconjugated VI polysaccharide typhoid vaccines, emphasizing their programmatic use for controlling epidemic and endemic typhoid fever in areas where the disease has remained a major public health concern. According to Bentsi-Enchill and Hombach (2019), the use of oral live attenuated Ty21a and parenteral unconjugated VI polysaccharide typhoid vaccines in two large pilot projects in Asia provided evidence of vaccine safety and effectiveness while also demonstrating feasibility to the communities targeted.