Respond to classmates post in 2 small 5 sentence paragraphs


· Write 1 page about each topic. APA for 1 source at least

· Respond to classmates post in 2 small 5 sentence paragraphs

· pg. 550, Critical thinking- acid-fast bacterium

· pg. 624- critical thinking, gonorrhea

· pg. 574- critical thinking- periodontal disease

P.540 Question 18.1 (Todd)classmate response #1 When a baby’s hand touches something hot and quickly pulls it back, is it the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both at work? Why do you think so? The human nervous system can be divided into two parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system is made up of the spinal cord and the brain, while the peripheral nervous system is everything else, right down to the pain sensors in your big toe. These two systems work together to basically control everything you do. As you know, the brain is where all the decisions happen. This includes both the conscious decisions you make, like moving your hand to pick up your cell phone, and the unconscious ones, like increasing your heart rate when you’re exercising . The peripheral nervous system is responsible for carrying out these actions – these are completed through motor neurons, which move your hand or stimulate the muscles of the heart , and sensory neurons which tell you that you’ve done it. While you might think that your mind works quickly, and it does, because of its incredible complexity (there are as many as 100 trillion connections in the human brain), some simple tasks can take longer than they should. In the case of a potentially hazardous scenario, every nanosecond count, and that’s why the reflex arc, as it’s known, bypasses the brain. Instead, the decision is made in the spinal cord. Normally, nerves of the PNS feed into the relative safety of the spinal cord where they travel up to the brain, and once the brain has decided upon a response, different nerves carry that response back down the spinal cord and out to the relevant area. In the case of the reflex arc, however, the nerve goes into the spinal cord and the stimulus is of such magnitude that small neurons called interneurons realize that action needs to be taken immediately and feed the response straight back into the motor neurons of the PNS and the necessary action is carried out. Your brain will still of course realize what has happened, but the actual sensation of heat and the realization of what’s happened will often occur around the same time, or just after the reflex arc has caused your hand to release the plate. The speed of the reflex is incredible, with the reaction to touch stimuli occurring in just 15 milliseconds, claims a study published in Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine. Other examples of a reflex arc include the knee jerk response your response to touching something sharp, and the multitude of tiny actions that help you to maintain balance and posture. So, to answer the question is the central nervous system at work because reflex arc contact with the hot pot triggers the start of a series of events in the body to evoke a response. At the point of contact with the hot pot, skin receptors quickly send nerve impulses (electrical) to the spinal cord (central nervous system) via sensory neurons. Source: Phillips, Harry. “How Does the Body Respond to Touching Something Hot?” Health24, 24 Nov. 2014, .

Emily classmate response #2

p. 549: Listeria Meningitis (Listeriosis) COLLAPSE Listeria meningitis, or Listeriosis is a bacterial infection of the brain that is typically caused by the ingestion of food which contains the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. Foods most commonly contaminated by the bacteria are deli meats and unpasteurized milk. The virus mimics many flu-like symptoms in the first few days of infection. These symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle aches and headaches. This is especially true in women who are pregnant. As the bacterial infection spreads to the nervous system, the symptoms begin to mimic those of other meningitis viruses including neck pain/stiffness, confusion, and severe headaches. The CDC considers events where 2 or more people have become sick with diagnosable foodborne illnesses originating from the same food product, a widespread foodborne outbreak. Since 2011, the CDC notes that there have been 15 widespread documented outbreaks. Of these outbreaks, deli meats and unpasterized or “raw” milk have counted for a substantial part of these. Each year an estimated 1,600 people are infected with the bacteria, while 260 die. This bacteria has adaptations that make it hard for the host cell immune system to fight the invading bacteria. The begin, Lasteria uses a mechanism called Phagocyosis to invade the body. This means the bacteria enters the body by adhering to the host cells and then breaking out of the phagosome and then into the cytoplasm. The host cell must have especially strong cellular immunity to fight this invading bacteria. This bacteria also has an adaptation where it invades the host by hiding in the anti-body meditated immune response. This makes it difficult for the host cell immune system to fight the bacteria. This is especially true in patients with compromised immune systems such as elderly patients, those who are pregnant (which make up 15% of cases), and patients with diseases like AIDS. Pregnant women are at especially high risk, but the bacteria can also spread across the placenta putting their unborn babies at risk as well. This can lead to neural defects, spontaneous abortion, or premature birth. These patients are all at risk for developing severe complications related to Lasteria meingitis, due to its properties and their compromised immune function. As cellular immunity becomes compromised, the bacteria begins to multiply and spread throughout the body without control.