Primary Source Response for Part II Test: Choose 2 of the following questions to answer. Make sure you answer all of the embedded questions.

1. What does von Ihering reveal about Bismarck’s political methods in his Letters and why was why was von Ihering conflicted about Bismarck’s actions?

2. As described by Ndansi Kumalo, what social and economic changes did the Europeans initiate when their gained control his native region and its people?

3. Based on Franke’s and Sassoon’s descriptions of the battlefronts, what physical and psychological effects did trench warfare have on soldiers?

4. Based on the excerpt from The Doctrine of Fascism, In what ways were Mussolini’s principles rooted in the legacy of World War I and what does Mussolini mean when he describes Fascism as Totalitarian?

Part II Test, Short Answer Responses: In 1-2 paragraphs (at most) answer each of the following questions.

1. Describe specific reasons why the turn of the Century could be characterized by the word radicalized

2. List and describe the 4 interlocking factors that led to the outbreak of WWI and then explain the ways in which WWI a total War?

3. Define Totalitarianism and give examples of why Stalinist Russia, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy fit the definition of Totalitarian regimes.