Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
According to Maslow (1943), human beings have needs, and these needs can be hierarchically ranked. People need to satisfy the lower needs first, and once they do, these needs will not motivate the person. Then it becomes important to know at what level an employee is so that you motivate them at that level (Robbins, 2001). These needs from the bottom of the pyramid are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and at the top of the pyramid are self-actualization needs. The figure below shows the pyramid of needs.
Figure 1: Maslow’s needs hierarchy.
At the lowest level are basic needs including food and clothing. Organizations have to pay employees enough salaries that meet their basic needs. At the next level of safety the working environment must be safe to work in. To meet social needs, organizations facilitate employees to participate in social events. Recognition of employees at work helps to meet the fourth level of esteem needs. The top of the pyramid represents self-actualization needs and an employee at that level is a valuable asset to the organization according to Kaur (2013).
Kaur, A. (2013). Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: Applications and Criticisms. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(10), 1061-1064.
Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
Robbins, S. (2001). Organizational behavior. Pearson Education India.