Critical appraisal of external evidence

  1. Are the results of the study valid? (Validity) Did the researchers conduct the study using the best research design and methods possible?
  2. What are the results? (Reliability)

In quantitative research

Did the intervention work, and if so, how large was the effect? Can the results be generalized?

In qualitative research

Does the research approach fit the purpose of the study?

  1. Will the results help me in caring for my patients? (Applicability) Are the subjects in the study similar to the patients for whom I care? Are the benefits greater than the risks of treatment? Is the treatment feasible to implement in my practice setting? Would my patients readily accept the treatment and do they have the resources needed?