BURNS ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE DEPTH OF INJURY. DEFINE THE STRUCTURES AFFECTED IN THE FOLLOWING BURNS CLASSIFICATIONS.
a) Burns are classified according to the depth of injury. Define the structures
affected in the following burns classifications:
i. first degree burns (2 marks)
ii. second degree burns (2 marks)
iii. third degree burns (2 marks)
iv. fourth degree burns. (2 marks)
b) Summarise the important pathophysiological features of:
i. early burn injury and burn shock (7 marks)
ii. smoke inhalation. (5 marks)
c) Briefly describe treatment for a horse that has extensive second degree burns on
its flanks and chest. (7.5 marks)
d) List the factors associated with a poor prognosis in association with burns and
smoke inhalation. (2.5 marks)
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Equine Medicine Paper 2 Page 3 of 8
2. Electrolyte abnormalities are common in severely ill horses and foals. For each of the
situations listed below, describe:
pathophysiologic mechanism of the electrolyte abnormality
clinical manifestations of the electrolyte abnormality
principles of treatment.
a) Hyponatraemia (sodium 113 mmol/L, ref 140–150 mmol/L) due to severe
enteritis in a neonatal foal. (10 marks)
b) Hypocalcaemia (ionised calcium 0.6 mmol/L, ref 1.3–1.4 mmol/L) in a 14-yearold
post parturient Thoroughbred broodmare. (10 marks)
c) Hyperkalaemia (potassium 8.0 mmol/L, ref 3.5–5.1 mmol/L) in a three-day-old
colt foal diagnosed with ruptured bladder. (10 marks)
3. A three-year-old Thoroughbred mare is presented to you with inappetance, fever,
lymphadenopathy and scant nasal discharge suggestive of Streptococcus equi var equi
(strangles) infection. Three weeks ago the mare was introduced onto an agistment
farm of approximately 20 mature horses.
Answer all parts of this question:
a) Discuss in detail the diagnostic tests for Streptococcus equi var equi. Include in
your answer indications for use, sensitivity and specificity of the test, advantages
and disadvantages of use. (12 marks)
b) Discuss treatment of Streptococcus equi infection in the index case. (3 marks)
c) Describe in detail biosecurity recommendations for management of a strangles
outbreak on the above farm, including screening and treatment of carriers.
d) List ten (10) potential complications of strangles infection. (5 marks)
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