1. A young male, is afflicted with a muscle wasting disease. His mother’s two brothers also had the disease. No other family members (his father, his father’s relatives, his mother, or his mother’s female relatives) have the disease. Is this muscle wasting disease (A) autosomal or sex-linked, and (B) dominant or recessive? Defend your answers.

2. Your friend is consuming a wide variety of medications. Because of a very bad drug interaction, the secretion of both antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone is suddenly increased. How will these two hormones modify water and sodium reuptake by the kidney and the volume of your friend’s urine output? Explain your answer. Page 11 of 11

3. Explain why the role of oxytocin in labor is an example of positive feedback. Do any other roles of oxytocin exhibit this same principle?

4. List the four classic symptoms of inflammation and describe the biologic cause of each.

5. Draw/diagram a Punnett square in which, upper case Hh represents two sets of genes (alleles) for a female with hazel eyes, Hazel eyes female and lower case hh represents two sets of genes (alleles) for a brown-eyes male. Note that upper case H represents a dominant trait— hazel eyes and lower-case h represents the recessive trait—brown eyes. In this scenario, the female is hazel-eyed in appearance (phenotype) and the male is browneyed in appearance (phenotype). i) Given that the female carries both genes (alleles), that is H and h, for hazel eyes, explain why her appearance is hazel eyes. ii) Next, draw a Punnett square for the offspring that could be produced from the union of this female Hh and this male hh. iii) After drawing the Punnett square, discuss the phenotypes (appearances) of the fourrepresentative offspring whose genotypes are provided in the Punnett Square.